Saturday, March 14, 2020
Human Communication essays The movie Sweet Home Alabama showcases examples of many important theories of human communication. The movie's plot itself allows for a great deal of miscommunication and misunderstanding, and it is often these conflicts that allow us to view communication theories. However, many examples of theories of human communication come in scenes where there is little conflict, and the characters are going about their daily business, illustrating that communication occurs in a wide variety of instances. Overall, Sweet Home Alabama provides examples of communication theories as diverse as expectancy theory, constructivism, symbolic interactionism, and the coordinated management of meaning. Some of the most interesting analysis of human communication can come from modern cinema. Topical movies provide not only entertainment, but they often reflect common relationship issues. It is in this reflection of modern relationships that there is a great deal of opportunity for a study of human communication. Given that for every effective story there must be moments of conflict, movies often provide an excellent opportunity to study difficulties in human communication. The movie Sweet Home Alabama provides ample material for a study of human communication. Starring Reese Witherspoon as the movie's heroine, Melanie Carmichael, Sweet Home Alabama chronicles the story of a young woman who is torn between two lovers. While this may seem like an often- told tale, there is an important twist in the plot of this story: one of the lover's is Melanie's ex-husband, and one is her fianc. Perhaps more succinctly, one of the lovers is not quite her ex-husband, as he simply Melanie is a small-town girl who has moved to the big city, and done well for herself. She has a burgeoning career, and is engaged to the son of the mayor. Her newfound debutante status is a far cry from h...
Wednesday, February 26, 2020
Full internal and external environmental analysis of Morrisons - Essay Example It also offers British and continental foods and light snacks. It offers a wine bar filled with assorted fine and traditional wines, spirits and ales. It has a fruit and vegetable section. It also has a fresh flower section consisting of different flowers, shrubs and plants. Morrison runs a complete array of pharmacy products and services which provide private consulting. It has a complete set of over-the counter medicines, and a prescription collection system. The company also offers services such as petrol filling stations, dry cleaning and photo processing services. This supermarket chain has branches in Britain, Wales and Scotland. Morrison has its in-store label products which consists of Ã¢â¬Å"The BestÃ¢â¬ a brand which covers a range of meals made from the finest ingredients. It also has the Eat Smart a brand which refers to specific calorie, fat, sugar and salt controlled meals. It carries the Ã¢â¬Å"Betta BuyÃ¢â¬ , a brand which pertains to a select group of food and h ome products at low prices. MorrisonÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"OrganicÃ¢â¬ is a brand which caters to organic products. It has Ã¢â¬Å"At HomeÃ¢â¬ brand which refers to quality home and accessory products. The Ã¢â¬Å"First HomeÃ¢â¬ brand pertains to affordable home essentials products. Its brand Ã¢â¬Å"ComplexionsÃ¢â¬ covers cosmetics and make-up products and accessories. In Britain, the supermarkets are defined as stores with at least 2,000 square feet having three or more checkout counters. These modern supermarkets stock merchandise comprising of food groups and regular household items. (Curth, et. al., 2002). The StakeholderÃ¢â¬â¢s Analysis is applied to the William Morrison Plc group. This analysis helps organizations focus on important areas of the business. (Learned, et.al., 1969) The project has several stakeholders. The first group of stakeholders is the consumers consisting of the family households such as the parents, children and other family members. Morrison is able to provide high-quality food
Monday, February 10, 2020
Supply chain management - Essay Example To achieve this objective, there is a need of an organization to have an efficient supply chain that will make it possible for the organization to supply their products without passing on the extra costs of supply to their customers. In achieving this objective, the organization under consideration will manage to obtain a competitive advantage over its competitors. However, this is not the case, and it is because there are a variety of factors that determine the supply chain of a product. Some of these factors are beyond the control of business organizations (Lee and Lee, 2007). This is because they are influenced by the environmental conditions. This research paper is an examination of the global supply chain of coffee. It is important to denote that coffee is an important product, that is traded worldwide, and the balance of trade in regard to coffee production and manufacturing, is in favor of the developed countries, as opposed to the developing countries (Lindgreen and Maon, 2013). Coffee is one of the major sources of revenue for less developed countries, and it is always grown on large scale, for purposes of exportation. On this basis, coffee is a very valuable crop in less developed countries, since it is a source of livelihood. In analyzing the global supply chain of coffee, this paper will identify the power in which different actors in this supply chain hold in the market. It is important to denote that most production of coffee emanates from the third world countries, while the manufacturers of this coffee, popularly referred to as roasters are found in the first world countries. Global trade in coffee has been made possible because of the international liberalization of trade. Liberalization of trade involves reducing international barriers to trade in services and goods (Sherer, 2005). This principle is based on the concept that a market works better and most efficiently when competition existing in it, is less regulated. It is important to
Thursday, January 30, 2020
Article summary example Essay Will Rasmussen in the article Ã¢â¬Å"Egypt fights to stem rapid population growth, writes about EgyptÃ¢â¬â¢s dilemma of trying to stop a vastly growing population. Egypts population doubled since President Hosni Mubarak took office in 1981 and itÃ¢â¬â¢s likely to double to 160 million by 2050. The nationÃ¢â¬â¢s growth has been quite high, in recent years the fertility rate is about 3.1 children per woman in contrast to the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ 2.1. Most of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s 82 million people compressed in urban areas near the Nile River where some districts host 41k people per square kilometer in comparison to the city of Manhattan that holds 27k people per square kilometer. The stateÃ¢â¬â¢s officials are having a difficult time trying to find solution to the so called Ã¢â¬Å"pressing problemÃ¢â¬ as journalist and former member of parliament states The population explosion is a crisis the government doesnt know how to handle. President Mubarak spoke once in a government sponsored conference about the population increase saying, cutting the population growth was urgent. However, Mubarak doesnt mention an exact number of children on the other hand the government prefers a family of two. The countrys urgent problem presents many concerns, one of which is the economy. The nations financial system is frail as estimated recently to be 7 percent and unfortunately has not been steady enough to construct a middle class. Such economy cant support a large population whose one fifth is living on less than a 1$ a day. Additionally, Egypt does not processes many resources as it depends heavily on the water from the Nile and imported goods. Many are concerned about the general welfare of the people as Magued Osman, chairman of the cabinets Information and Decision Support Center states The consequences are areal deterioration in the quality of life and in agriculture land per person. Furthermore, the government has tried to use incentives to modify the nations behavior. A few measures taken to restrict large families maternity benefits that sparked protests. Egypt is not going to legalize abortion which helped Tunisia bring down fertility rate and vasectomy isÃ barely heard of in the state . Egypt being a predominantly Muslim country, and generally the religion allows contraception. However many Egyptian people oppose the idea of limiting the number of kids to a family. A few believe having a large family is a source of economic strength. Others deem it not for the states or government to decide on such a matter as they say it is up to the creator. Work Cited Rasmussen, Will. Egypt Fights to Stem Rapid Population Growth. The New York Times.The New York Times., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2012. .
Wednesday, January 22, 2020
In the food industry, plant-derived protein, such as soy protein, is being used as an economical replacement for animal-derived proteins, such as whey and casein, but limitations occur due to the functionality and stability of these proteins in different applications (Pasupuleti and Demain 2010). Protein concentrates contain 50-80% protein, while protein isolates contain greater than 90% protein (Hui 2007). Soy protein isolates are utilized in bakery goods to add texture and emulsification properties with minimal change to the color and flavor of the food (Riaz 1999). In addition, the combination of soy protein concentrates and dried whey protein is used in bakery products as an economical replacement for milk (Riaz 1999). Whey and casein, while typically found in milk, can be isolated and utilized in many other applications, such as the branded ingredient Simplesse, a fat replacer (Hui 2007). Simplesse employs microparticulation, during which milk proteins are denatured and folded i nto smaller proteins that mimic the lubricating nature of lipids (Hui 2007). The isoelectric pH range for soy protein, during which solubility is minimal and precipitation may occur due to hydrophobic interactions, is between 4.2 to 4.6 (Pabby 2009). The isoelectric pH range for casein is 4.5 to 4.7 (Pabby 2009). After casein precipitates, the remaining supernatant contains the whey proteins, which may be removed through a process called salting-out (Mine and Shahidi 2006). Ammonium sulfate added to the supernatant will dissociate and the ions will interact with the water to alter waterÃ¢â¬â¢s structure and increase surface tension, leading to the decreased solubility of and precipitation of nonpolar molecules, such as whey proteins (Mine and Shahidi 2006... ...rk: Springer Science + Business Media. 229 p. Poklar N, Vesnaver G. 2000. Thermal denaturation of proteins studied by UV spectroscopy. J Chem Edu 77(3):380-2. Riaz MN. 1999. Healthy baking with soy ingredients. Cereal Food World. 44 (3):136. Ryan M, McEvoy E, Duignan S, Crowley C, Fenelon M, OÃ¢â¬â¢Callaghan DM, FitzGerald RJ. 2008. Thermal stability of soy protein isolate and hydrolysate ingredients. J Food Chem 108(2):503-10. Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. 2011. Protein assay data analysis. Rockford, Ill.: Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. Available from: http://www.piercenet.com/browse.cfm?fldID=876769DB 5056-8A76-4ED7-480BC9A5AD92. Accessed Nov 20, 2011. Thompson LD, Dinh T. 2009. Food proteins Ã¢â¬â protein isolation and thermal stability. FDSC 4303/5305 food chemistry laboratory manual. Lubbock, Tx.: Texas Tech University, Department of Animal and Food Sciences.
Tuesday, January 14, 2020
Currency War: Currency war, also known as competitive devaluation, is a condition in international affairs where countries compete against each other to achieve a relatively low exchange rate for their own currency. As the price to buy a particular currency falls so too does the real price of exports from the country. Imports become more expensive too, so domestic industry, and thus employment, receives a boost in demand both at home and abroad. However, the price increase in imports can harm citizensÃ¢â¬â¢ purchasing power. The policy can also trigger retaliatory action by other countries which in turn can lead to a general decline in international trade, harming all countries. Reasons of Currency War Between USA and China: Competitive devaluation has been rare through most of history as countries have generally preferred to maintain a high value for their currency,but it happens when devaluation occur. China keeps its dollar artificially low so that countries like the US will buy its goods. China is the USÃ¢â¬â¢s largest trading partner and if they didnÃ¢â¬â¢t sell their goods for super cheap, markets like India would be able to under cut the Chinese and then the US would buy goods from Indian instead of China. There is so much trade between China and the US that China profits immensely without needing itÃ¢â¬â¢s Yuan to appreciate. This of course hurts the average Chinese person in that their labour is devalued but it beneficial for the country as a whole as it has quickly become a super power economicaly. In 2008, a trader paid one Ghana Cedi for one U.S. dollar, but at the beginning of April 2012, the same trader travelling to Dubai paid GHÃ ¢1.74 for one U.S. dollar. This means that year-on-year decline in the value of cedi against the US dollar was 74 per cent over a three-year period. A point to note is that during the global economic crises of 2008-2009, the cedi depreciated by 25 per cent against the dollar. Between 2010 and 2011, the cedi again depreciated 18.5 per cent against the US dollar. For last month, the cedi exchange rate depreciated 4.29 percent against the US dollar. So is the current downward slide in the cedi value as a result of the slowdown in the global economy or due to internal structural weaknesses? This question requires a detailed research work beyond the scope of this article but it is a very relevant question to ask at this time. In economics, depreciation is basically the symptoms of an underlying problem, specifically imbalances in the Balance of Payment (BOP), emanating from excess demand for dollars. So instead of discussing the depreciating cedi, I will rather focus my attention on the causes or factors that cause currency to depreciate and what the government can do to arrest this problem in special cases. Before then, I must let readers know the difference between currency fluctuation and depreciation. Fluctuations in currency value are a common event and are usually no cause for concern. The minor daily increases and decreases in value are generally due to Ã¢â¬Å"random walkÃ¢â¬ and not due to an economic event or fundamental problems. However, changes in currency value become significant when the decline in value of the currency is an ongoing trend. Technically, when currency depreciates, it loses value and purchasing power, with impact on the real sectors of the economy. Although, the economic effects of a lower cedi take time to happen, there are time lags between a change in the exchange rate and changes in commodity prices. Factors that determine the value of a currency include the current state of the overall economy, inflation, trade balance (the difference between the value of export and import), level of political stability, etc. Occasionally, external factors like currency speculations on the foreign exchange market can also contribute to depreciation of the local currency. Such being the case, a government can intervene into the foreign exchange market to support its national currency and suppress the process of depreciation. Currency depreciation can positively impact the overall economic development, though. It boosts competitiveness through lower export costs and secures more income from exported goods in a similar way devaluation does. On the contrary, depreciation makes imports more expensive and discourages purchases of imported goods stimulating demand for domestically manufactured goods. Globally, governments intentionally influence the value of their currency utilising the powerful tool of the base interest rates, which are usually set by the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank and this tool is often used to intentionally depreciate the currency rates to encourage exports. Factors that can cause a currency to depreciate are: Supply and Demand Ã¢â¬ ¢ Just as with goods and services, the principles of supply and demand apply to the appreciation and depreciation of currency values. If a country injects new currency into its economy, it increases the money supply. When there is more money circulating in an economy, there is less demand. This depreciates the value of the currency. On the other hand, when there is a high domestic or foreign demand for a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency, the currency appreciates in value. Inflation Ã¢â¬ ¢ Inflation occurs when the general prices of goods and services in a country increase. Inflation causes the value of the cedi to depreciate, reducing purchasing power. If there is rampant inflation, then a currency will depreciate in value. What causes inflation? Ã¢â¬ ¢ Printing Money. Note printing money does not always cause inflation. It will occur when the money supply is increased faster than the growth of real output. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Note: the link between printing money and causing inflation is not straightforward. The money supply does not just depend on the amount the government prints. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Large National Debt. To finance large national debts, governments often print money and this can cause inflation. Economic Outlook If a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is in a slow growth or recessionary phase, the value of their currency depreciates. The value of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s currency also depreciates if its major economic indicators like retail sales and Gross Domestic Product, or GDP, are declining. A high and/or rising unemployment rate can also depreciate currency value because it indicates an economic slowdown. If a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is in a strong growth period, the value of their currency appreciates. Trade Deficit A trade deficit occurs when the value of goods a country imports is more than the value of goods it exports. When the trade deficit of a country increases, the value of the domestic currency depreciates against the value of the currency of its trading partners. The demand for imports should fall as imports become more expensive. However, some imports are essential for production or cannot be made in the country and have an inelastic demandÃ¢â¬âwe end up spending more on these when the exchange rate falls in value. This can cause the balance of payments to worsen in the short run (a process known as the J curve effect) Collapse of Confidence If there is a collapse of confidence in an economy or financial sector, this will lead to an outflow of currency as people do not want to risk losing their currency. Therefore, this causes an outflow of capital and depreciation in the exchange rate. Collapse in confidence can be due to political or economic factors. Price of Commodities if an economy depends on exports of raw materials, a fall in the price of this raw material can cause a fall in export revenue and depreciation in the exchange rate. For example, in 2011, a ton of cocoa sold for US4,000 per ton. Currently, it is going for US$2,300 per ton, translating into fewer inflows of dollars. Interest rate Differential I will use the International Fischer Effect to explain the relationship between the expected change in the current exchange rate between the cedi and the dollar, which is approximately equivalent to the difference between Ghana and USÃ¢â¬â¢ nominal interest rates for that time. For example, if the average interest rate in Ghana for 2011 was 24 per cent and for US was three per cent, then the dollar should appreciate roughly 21 per cent or the cedi must depreciate 21 per cent compared to the dollar to restore parity. The rationale for the IFE is that a country with a higher interest rate will also tend to have a higher inflation rate. This increased amount of inflation should cause the currency in the country with the high interest rate to depreciate against a country with lower interest rates. Market Speculations Market speculations can contribute to a process of spiraling depreciation after smaller market players decide to follow the example of the leading dealers, the so-called market makers, and after they lost confidence in a particular currency start to sell it in bulk amounts. Then only a quick reaction of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank can restore the confidence of investors and stop the currency rates of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s currency from continuous decline. When the currency depreciation is based on market speculations, in other words, not backed by fundamental economic factors, then the central bank comes to the rescue- intervene. A sterilised intervention against depreciation can only be effective in the medium term if the underlying cause behind the currencyÃ¢â¬â¢s loss of value can be addressed. If the cause was a speculative attack based on political uncertainty this can potentially be resolved. Because after a sterilised intervention the money supply remains unchanged at its high level, the locally available interest rates can still be relatively low, so the carry trade continues and if it still wants to prevent depreciation the central bank has to intervene again. This can only go on so long before the bank runs out of foreign currency reserves. In conclusion, currency depreciation is the result of fundamental deficiencies with the domestic economy which must be corrected over a period of time to restore balance. However, where the depreciation is out of speculative attacks on the currency, then the central bank can intervene to correct the temporary anomalies, which, often is short term in nature. Lastly, intervention in the foreign exchange market by the central bank to correct fundamental weaknesses, just like the Ghanaian situation will not work, because, very soon, the central bank will run out of international reserves; hence, the cedi must therefore seek its equilibrium level. The writer is an economic consultant and former Assistant Professor of Finance and Economics at Alabama State University. Montgomery, Alabama. Currency War in the Great Depression During the Great Depression of the 1930s, most countries abandoned the gold standard, resulting in currencies that no longer had intrinsic value. With widespread high unemployment, devaluations became common. Effectively, nations were competing to export unemployment, a policy that has frequently been described as Ã¢â¬Å"beggar thy neighbourÃ¢â¬ . However, because the effects of a devaluation would soon be counteracted by a corresponding devaluation by trading partners, few nations would gain an enduring advantage. On the other hand, the fluctuations in exchange rates were often harmful for international traders, and global trade declined sharply as a result, hurting all economies. The exact starting date of the 1930s currency war is open to debate. The three principal parties were Great Britain, France, and the United States. For most of the 1920s the three generally had coinciding interests, both the US and France supported BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts to raise SterlingÃ¢â¬â¢s value against market forces. Collaboration was aided by strong personal friendships among the nationsÃ¢â¬â¢ central bankers, especially between BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s Montagu Norman and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s Benjamin Strong until the latterÃ¢â¬â¢s early death in 1928. Soon after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, France lost faith in Sterling as a source of value and begun selling it heavily on the markets. From BritainÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective both France and the US were no longer playing by the rules of the gold standard. Instead of allowing gold inflows to increase their money supplies (which would have expanded those economies but reduced their trade surpluses) France and the US began sterilising the inflows, building up hoards of gold. These factors contributed to the Sterling crises of 1931; in September of that year Great Britain substantially devalued and took the pound off the gold standard. For several years after this global trade was disrupted by competitive devaluation. The currency war of the 1930s is generally considered to have ended with the Tripartite monetary agreement of 1936.
Monday, January 6, 2020
Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists The newest class of antidiabeteic medications to be approved for use in the United States is the glucagon-like- peptide-1 agonists (GLP-1). There are two drugs in this class that are currently available, exenatide (Byetta, Bydurian) and liraglutide (Victoza) (LexiComp, 2014). These medications mimic the actions of endogenous GLP-1. Endogenous GLP-1 is secreted from the L-cells in the colon and ileum in response to the ingestion of nutrients (Ryan, Foster, Jobe, 2011, p. 794). GLP-1 has a half-life of 2 minutes due to the action of the DPP-4 enzymes. GLP-1 agonists overcome this issue by having an altered structure that renders them less susceptible to DPP-4 enzymatic degradation thusÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, recommendations from the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinologists support the use of GLP-1 agonists as first-line monotherapy in patients whose HbA1c is between 6.5% and 7.5% and recommend the addition of m etformin in patients whose HbA1c are between 7.6% and 8.5% (Garber et al., 2013, p. 4). Metformin is the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes based on the guidelines established by the American Diabetic Association (ADA, 2014, p. S20). The ADA recognizes that type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease that may require the addition of other pharmacological agents in addition to continued lifestyle modification to control hyperglycemia and to mitigate complications that may arise from type 2 diabetes. The ADA recommends the addition of other classes of medications once metformin with lifestyle changes alone are inadequate to meet treatment targets (ADA, 2014, p. S20). GLP-1 receptor agonists are one of the classes that may be used in addition to metformin and lifestyle modifications. The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American College of Endocrinologists in their 2013 recommendations also recommend metformin as an initial therapy for patients with an HbA1c 7.5% (Garber et al., 2013, p.Show MoreRelatedEssay on Liraglutide: Novel Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagespharmacological treatment of type 2 diabetes. The most recent developments have been around the incretin hormones. Glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonists (GLP-1) have demonstrated efficacy and safety in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Liraglutide (Victoza) is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that has demonstrated advantages in lower hemoglobin A1c in this class of medications and assisting patients in reducing weight. Liraglutide: Novel treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes is rapidlyRead MoreTherapy For Diabetes : Conclusion Or Illusion? Essay904 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGLP-1-GASTRIN AGONIST BASED THERAPY FOR DIABETES: CONCLUSION OR ILLUSION? Keywords: diabetes mellitus, dual agonist, gastrin, GLP-1, glucose tolerance Abbreviations: Ã ²-cell, pancreatic beta-cell; DDP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1, gluacgon-like-peptide-1; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; PPAR-Ã ³, peroxisome proliferatorÃ¢â¬âactivated receptor-Ã ³ TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. Revised Commentary 2 1.1 Main Findings 2 1.2 A Repeat of History 4 References 6 2. Feedback Received from PeersRead MoreThe Role of DPP-4 Inhibitors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus1828 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesAs the incidence of type 2 diabetes is steadily increasing, the demand for treatment options is increasing. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4) are a new class of oral anti-hyperglycemic medications that target the incretin system found in the gut. Evidence has shown that treatment with DPP-4 inhibitors has shown significant reductions in HbA1c and increased pancreatic Ã ²-cell function without an increased risk of hypoglycemia. In this document, the pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and incidence